Investigation of smoke gases and temperatures during car fire–large‐scale and small‐scale tests and numerical investigations.
The hazards for passengers during vehicle fires result from the increasing temperature and the emitted smoke gases. A fire was set on a car to investigate the development of temperature and of gaseous fire products in the passenger compartment. The study was based on a full-scale test with a reconstructed scene of a serious car fire. The aim of this work was to identify the conditions for self-rescuing of passengers during a car fire. A dummy, equipped with several thermocouples, was placed on the driver’s seat. Also, the smoke gases were continuously collected through a removable probe sensor corresponding to the nose of the dummy in the passenger compartment and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, several car components were investigated in the smoke density chamber (smoke emission and smoke gas composition). It was found that the toxic gases already reached hazardous levels by 5min, while the temperatures at the dummy were at that time less than 80°C. The toxicity of smoke gases was assessed using the fractional effective dose concept. The various experimentally parameters (temperature and smoke gas composition) were implemented into numerical simulations with fire dynamics simulator. Both the experimental data and the numerical simulations are presented and discussed.
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