Tuneable Diode Laser (TDL) Gas Analysis
The LGA analysers use laser spectroscopy to generate a concentration signal for specific gas species. The laser beam from the transmitter unit passes across the measurement path (process duct for in-situ type, measurement cell for extractive type) where some of the energy is absorbed by the measured gas.
This attenuated light is detected by a photoelectric sensor in the receiver unit, and a proportional concentration value is derived using the Beer-Lambert relationship.
Different compounds absorb light at different energy levels which relate to the way in which the molecules vibrate and rotate. The absorption characteristics of different gases produce a unique pattern, sometimes referred to as the ‘fingerprint’. Detailed examination reveals a hyper-fine structure consisting of a number of narrow absorption bands.
Conventional light sources emit energy over a wide spectral range, potentially correlating to a number of different absorption bands and capturing responses from a number of different molecules – cross-sensitivity.
The LGA TDL analysers use a tuneable diode laser as the light-source which is controlled to emit energy over a very narrow range. With a spectral width as low as 0.01nm, the transmitted energy can correspond to a ‘single line’ in the fingerprint which is unique to the measurable compound, and eliminates uncertainty caused by cross-interfering molecules.
The laser sources can be tuned to correspond to different molecules, allowing the creation a range of analysers measuring different components with the same characteristic specificity.
Measurable gases include: